dinsdag 29 november 2011

Reflecting on designing a TPACK-based lesson

Figure 1 Example of QR-code.
With three other students I recently designed a lesson based on the TPACK-model, i.e. a lesson in which technology, pedagogy and content were combined as a whole. These three components were smartphones, inquiry learning and parts of the plants respectively for our lesson. In this lesson, for which the Sekolah Indonesia Netherlands (SIN) at Wassenaar was used as a context, pupils were provided with questions about a certain part of plants (root, stem, leaves and flower: so there were four groups, and each group needed to find the compontents and function of their part). They needed to find an answer to these questions by scanning QR-codes (see Figure 1 for an example) on their smartphones in the gardens surrounding the school. Every group walks a different route (and gets a different color) and needed to follow the directions given to them to find the place to search for the QR-codes (see Figure 2 for an example of the map). In the end the pupils needed to make presentation in which they answered their questions to the rest of the group.

Figure 2 Example of the map.

So how did we come to our final design? We used the ADDIE-model to guide our process: so we started with a context and learner analysis, formulated design principles based on this, used these principles as guidelines to design and develop the lesson, provided an implementation plan and an evaluation plan (which was mainly aimed at evaluating the TPACK-competencies of the teacher).
In my opinion the process went smooth. As a group we worked well together - even though a lack of sufficient communication skills with respect to the English language sometimes caused misunderstandings (but this also helped improving my English language skills) - and we devided the tasks equally. But, looking back, I think we could have made the link between the analysis and the design principles and the design itself more explicit in our report. To me it now looks as if the principles just fall from the sky - even though that is not true - and we did not explicitly write down how these principles were operationalized specifically in our design.

Using the TPACK-model
The TPACK-model was really helpful in designing this lesson. It shows the three main components of a lesson (content, pedagogy and technology). By looking at it, it reminded me of the interrelationship of these components. When thinking about the technology (smartphones) it forced me to take the other components into account too. This was really insightful. The model also helped to structure my thinking. During the first meetings with our group we started brainstorming on lesson ideas. Using the TPACK-model, we were forced to think of a content, a pedagogy and a technology. Before knowing the model I would probably only have thought about the content and then about filling in the steps of the Expanded Events of Instruction of Gagné (in Smith & Ragan, 2005).

Stimulating teachers
Fisser (2006) mentions the Concerns-Based Adoption Model by Hord, Rutherford, Huling-Austin and Hall. This model summarizes the stages of concern of teachers about an innovation (see Figure 3). Using technology can be seen as an innovation.
Figure 3 Concerns-Based Adoption Model, according to Fisser (2006).
When teachers need to be stimulated to use ICT I think these stages should be taken into account. According to Fisser (2006) it is important to ask the same questions teachers are asking when the ask them. Also, this means that attention is needed for implementation for several years, because it will take at least three years for early concerns to be resolved and later ones to emerge. Probably we want teachers too much to use technology that we demand it NOW, while time is needed for teachers to get used to technology. Technological inventions go very fast and humans cannot adapt to these changes that fast. Teachers need to learn new skills, need answers to their questions. This not only means training, but also a rolemodel. Some teachers already seem to use technology very much and in very good ways. These teachers can function as these rolemodels. Teachers need an example, because the possibilities with technology are overwhelming them.

Fisser, P. (2006). Using ICT in higher education: From pilot to implementation, who is involved? In Whitelock, D. & Wheeler, S. (eds.), ALT-C 2006: The next generation. Research proceedings. Edinburgh: Heriot-Watt University.

Smith, P., & Ragan, T. (2005). Instructional design. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

1 opmerking:

  1. Hi Peter,
    Thank you for your reflection and for particpating in my course! Very interesting that you mention CBAM here again. Looking at your final report and at what you write in this blogpost I wonder if you and your group could have elaborated a bit more on how to support the school or the specific teacher in implementing the QR codes. Are they concerned or already enthusiastic? Where in the model are they? And what could you have done if you already knew in which stage they are?